The Hollow Earth
William Reed's Book, "Phantom of the Poles"
By: Dr. R. W. Bernard, B.A., M.A., Ph.D.
Presenting Scientific Evidence, Based on Arctic
Exploration, to Prove for the First Time that the Earth is Hollow With
Openings at the Poles.
In 1906 appeared the first book to
offer scientific proof that old geographical conceptions about the
earth's structure are false and that the earth, instead of being a
solid sphere, as commonly assumed, is really hollow, with openings at
the poles. Were this a book created from the author's imagination, it
might be disregarded as a work of science fiction - but since the book
is based on an extensive bibliography representing the reports of
Arctic explorers, it must be taken more seriously.
This book was published in New
York and written by William Reed. Its title was "The Phantom of the Poles," and claimed the Poles were never discovered
because they do not exist. Where the North and South Poles are supposed
to be located, Reed claims are huge polar openings in which the Poles
are in the center, for which reason they can never be reached by any
Reed's book was written fourteen
years before that of Marshall Gardner, who claimed that not only was
the earth hollow but that there was a central sun at its center. Reed,
however, did not include this central sun in his theory, but believed
that the higher temperature in the region of the Poles is due to
burning volcanoes at the polar openings, which are the origin of the
dust that Arctic explorers noticed there. We now quote from Reed's
book. On page 282 he says:
"The earth is either hollow or
it is not. What proof have we that it is not hollow? None at all that
is positive and circumstantial. On the contrary, everything points to
its being hollow. If it be so, and if there are burning volcanoes in
the interior, would you not see great lights reflected on the icebergs
and clouds, just as other great fires reflect the light? Would not
great clouds of smoke and dust be seen - the same as from any other
burning volcano? That is what all the explorers have witnessed - low
dark clouds rising from the ocean, or at the edge of the ice. Nansen
(an Arctic explorer) said: `Let us go home: What have we here to stay
for? Nothing but dust, dust, dust!'
"Where could such dust come from
- so bad that it was one of the great annoyances in the heart of the
Arctic Ocean, if it did not come from an exploding, burning volcano (in
the polar opening) ?
"If the earth be hollow, would
it not be warmer in winter and cooler in summer (as we enter the polar
opening)? Arctic explorers say that a north wind in winter raises the
temperature, while a south wind lowers it. As an opposite fact, in
summer a south wind raises the temperature, while north wind lowers it.
That is just what would occur if the winds come from the interior of
the earth. Again, if the earth is hollow, it could not be round, in as
much as the opening would take from its roundness in proportion to the
size of the opening. All now agree that the earth flattens at the
poles. Also it is warmer the further one goes north or south. Why is
this the case?
"There is but one answer, and
that is that the earth is hollow, and is warmer in the interior than on
the exterior. As the wind passes out in the winter, it warms the
atmosphere. If the earth is solid, neither science nor reason can
furnish any rational theory why it should be warmer as one passes
north. Every known theory is against such a conclusion. As soon as you
adopt the belief that the earth is hollow, perplexing questions will be
easily solved, the mind will be satisfied, and the triumph of sensible
reasoning will come as a delight never to be forgotten.
"This volume is not written to
entertain those who read for amusement, but to establish and prove, as
far as proof can be established and proved, certain mighty truths
hitherto not comprehended. One key will unlock all these mysteries. The
problems to be solved are the following:
" 1. Why is the earth flattened
at the poles?
" 2. Why have the poles never been reached?
" 3. Why is the sun invisible so long in winter near the farthest
points north or south?
" 4. What causes the Aurora Borealis?
" 5. Where are the icebergs formed and how?
" 6. What produces the many tidal waves in the Arctic?
" 7. Why do meteors fall more frequently near the Poles and from where
do they come?
" 8. What causes the great ice pressure in the Arctic Ocean during
still tide and calm weather?
" 9. Why is there colored snow in the Arctic region?
"10. Why is it warmer near the Poles than 600 to 1,000 miles away from
"11. Why is ice in the Arctic Ocean frequently filled with rock,
gravel, sand, etc. ?
"12. Why does the compass refuse to work near the Poles?
"Should I be able to give
reasonable answers to the above questions - answers that will satisfy
any intelligent person - the public will admit, I believe, that I have
fulfilled my task.
"I wish to acknowledge my
indebtedness to the brave men who have spent their time, comfort and,
in many cases, have given their lives, so that all may know the truth
and geography of this wonderful planet Through their reports I am able
to prove my theory that the earth is not only hollow, but suitable in
its interior to sustain human life with as little discomfort as on its
exterior, and can be made accessible to mankind with one-fourth the
outlay of money, time and life that it costs to build the subway in New
York City. The number of people who can settle in this new world (if
not already occupied) will be billions.
"I claim that the earth is not
only hollow, but that all, or nearly all, of the explorers who spent
much of their time past the rim of the polar opening have had a look
into the interior of the earth. When Lieutenant Greely was beholding
the mock sun at 120 degrees latitude, he was looking into our sister
world in the earth's interior."
Reed answers the above questions
"1. Why is the earth flattened
at the Poles? As the earth is hollow, it could not be round, is the
answer. The opening to the interior would detract from its roundness in
proportion to the size of the opening.
" 2. Why have the Poles never
been reached? Because no Poles exist in the sense usually understood.
" 3. Why does the sun not appear
for so long a time in winter near the supposed Poles? Because during
the winter the sun strikes the earth obliquely near the Poles. As one
passes over the rim of the polar opening and approaches the earth's
interior, one sinks inward into the hollow interior. The sun's rays are
in this way cut off, and do not appear again until they strike that
part of the earth more directly and shine down into the opening. This
explains why nights are so long in the far north.
"4. Assuming that the earth is
hollow, the interior should be warmer. We will furnish evidence to
prove that it is warmer. The ones who have explored the furthest north
will be the best judges.
"5. Meteors are constantly
falling near the supposed poles. Why? If the earth be solid, no one can
answer this question. If the earth is hollow, it is easily answered.
Some volcano is in eruption in the interior of the earth, and from it
rocks are thrown into the air. Vast quantities of dust are constantly
found in the Arctic Ocean. What causes this dust? The volcanic
eruptions. The dust has been analyzed and found to consist of carbon
and iron, which must come from some volcano in the polar opening.
" 6. What produces the aurora
borealis? It is a reflection of a fire within the interior of the
earth. (According to Marshall B. Gardner, this fire is the central sun,
whose rays project through the polar opening on the night sky, and the
changing forms and streamers of the aurora borealis are due to passing
clouds cutting off its rays.)
" 7. Where are the icebergs
formed? And how? The answer is as follows: In the interior of the
earth, where it is warm, rivers flow to the surface through the polar
opening. When they reach the outside, in the Arctic Circle, where it is
very cold, the mouth of the rivers freezes forming icebergs. This
continues for months, until, due to the warmer weather in summer and
the warmth from the earth, the icebergs are thawed loose and are washed
into the ocean. (The fact that icebergs are formed from fresh water,
not salty ocean water, proves this theory.)
" 8. What causes tidal waves in
the Arctic? They are started by icebergs leaving the place where they
are formed, and plunging into the ocean. This answer is given because
nothing else can produce even a fraction of the commotion of a monster
iceberg when it plunges into the sea.
"9. What causes colored snow in
the Arctic region? There are two causes. The red, green and yellow snow
are caused by a vegetable matter permeating the air with such density
that when it falls with the snow it colors it. This vegetable matter is
supposed to be the blossom or pollen of a plant. As it does not grow on
earth, one can naturally believe that it grows in the interior and came
out through the polar opening. Black snow, often noticed, is caused by
black dust, consisting of carbon and iron, and comes from a burning
volcano. As no burning volcano is near the Arctic Ocean, it must be in
the interior of the earth.
"10. Why is the ice filled with
rock, gravel and sand? These substances came from an exploding volcano
near where the iceberg is formed.
"By treating the earth as
hollow, we have the solution of all the great mysteries - such as tidal
waves, ice pressures, colored snow, open Arctic Ocean, warmer north,
icebergs, flattening of the earth at the Poles, and why the Poles have
not been found, the supernatural giving way to the natural, as it
always does with understanding and relief comes to mind and body.
"The earth is hollow. The Poles
so long sought are but phantoms. There are openings at the northern and
southern extremities. In the interior are vast continents, oceans,
mountains and rivers. Vegetable and animal life are evident in this new
world, and it is probably peopled by races yet unknown to dwellers upon
the earth's exterior."
In support of his theory of a
hollow earth, Reed offers the following evidence:
ABSENCE OF SUNLIGHT DURING LONG ARCTIC WINTERS. Reed summarizes the experience of Arctic
explorers who very quickly passed from the region of sunshine into the
region of long nights, or the opposite. In the far north the sun is
absent for abnormally long periods of time, which could not be the case
if the earth was round and solid, or even just slightly flattened at
the poles. The only explanation is that these explorers entered into
the opening at the North Pole; and as they entered, the sun's rays were
cut off from them, to reappear only when it was high enough in the sky
to shine in.
WORKlNG OF THE COMPASS IN THE FAR NORTH. This was observed by all explorers who reached
very far north. This strange action of the compass is exactly what
should be the case if the earth is hollow and if they entered into the
polar opening. In his book Reed has a drawing of a cross-section of the
polar opening with ships sailing both in and out. When the ship enters
the polar opening, the needle of the compass assumes a vertical
position, instead of horizontal, as it does on top of the earth's
surface. This is due to entering the polar opening. This is exactly
what explorers found to occur in the far north. They found that as they
approached the pole, the needle of the compass becomes restless, and
when one goes far enough north, assumes a vertical position, indicating
that one has then entered the polar opening, as occurred with Nansen
OVER THE RIM OF THE POLAR OPENING INTO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR - Reed says on this subject:
"Whenever the explorers pass
into the interior, they meet such different conditions that they are
puzzled to account for them. Therefore it is no wonder that they call
it a strange land. Everyone who has spent considerable time in the
Arctic or Antarctic Circles has met with conditions unexplainable
according to the theory that the earth is round and solid - but which
find an easy explanation according to the theory that it is hollow with
openings at the poles. Greely's description of passing around the curve
into the polar opening is exceedingly good and clear. He says:
"`The deep interest with which
we had hitherto pursued our journey was now greatly intensified. The
eye of civilized man had never seen, or his feet trodden, the ground
over which we were traveling. A strong, earnest desire to press forward
at our best speed seized us all. As we neared each projecting spur of
the lands ahead, our eagerness to see what was beyond became so intense
at times as to be painful. Each point we reached brought a new
landscape in sight, and always in advance was a point which cut off a
portion of the horizon and caused a certain disappointment.'
"If Greely and his companions
were entering into the interior of the earth, they would certainly find
that the earth has a greater curve near the poles than at any other
place; and as they passed over and around the farthest point north,
each projection reached would be followed by another which always
seemed to take in part of the horizon. This is just what happened."
ICEBERGS, COLORED SNOW, POLLEN AND DUST IN THE FAR NORTH. On this subject Reed says:
"When it can be shown that
conditions are such that no Arctic icebergs (composed of fresh water)
can be formed in the far north on the earth's outer surface, they must
be formed in the interior. If the material that produces colored snow
is a vegetable matter (which the analysis shows), and is supposed to be
a blossom or the pollen of a plant, when none such grows in the
vicinity of the Arctic Ocean, then it must grow in the interior of the
earth; for if it grows elsewhere on earth, then the snow would be
colored in other locations as well (as it is in the vicinity of the
polar opening), which does not seem to be the case.
"The dust, so annoying in the
Arctic Ocean, is also produced by volcanic eruptions. Being light, it
is carried far away by the wind, and when it falls on ships, it is
disagreeable. When it falls on the snow it produces black snow. When
analyzed it is found to consist of carbon and iron, supposed to come
from a burning volcano. Where is that volcano? No record or account of
any near the North Pole is found; and if it be elsewhere, why does the
dust fall in the Arctic Ocean?
"Various explorers report large
rocks and boulders on and imbedded in the icebergs. These boulders are
either cast there by the exploding volcano or they are scraped up as
the bergs slide down the rivers in the interior of the earth. The dust
in the Arctic is so heavy that it floats in great clouds. It colors the
snow black; and it falls on ships in such abundance that it is a source
of irritation. Nansen declares that it was one of his principal reasons
for wanting to go home. If the earth is solid, there is no answer to
this perplexing problem. But if the earth be hollow, the eruptions of
volcanos in the interior can easily account for the dust."
AT THE FARTHEST POINT NORTH.
"It is claimed by many that the Arctic Ocean is a frozen body of water.
Although it always contains large bodies of drift-ice and icebergs, it
is not frozen over. The student of Arctic travels will invariably find
that explorers were turned back by open water, and many instances are
cited where they came near being carried out to sea and lost. What I
wish to present to the reader, however, is the proof that the Arctic
Ocean is an open body of water, abounding with game of all kinds, and
the farther one advances, the warmer it will be found. There are many
cases of clouds of dust and smoke. Many fogs are reported in winter
time. If the earth were solid, and the ocean extended to the Pole, or
connected with land surrounding the Pole, there could be nothing to
produce that fog. It is caused by the warm air coming from the interior
of the earth.
"Kane (an Arctic explorer)
writes: `Some circumstances which he (McGary) reports seems to point to
the existence of a north water all the year round; and the frequent
water-skies, fogs, etc., that we have seen to the southwest during the
winter, go to confirm the fact.'
"There are many pages of reports
(in the writings of Arctic explorers) of this open sea to the far
north. Greely speaks of open water the year round. If there be open
water the year round at the farthest point north, can any good reason
be assigned why all have failed to reach the Pole? The men who spent
their time, comfort and, in several cases, their lives, were men more
than anxious to succeed, yet, strangely, all failed. Was this because
the weather got warmer and they found the game more plentiful? No, it
was because there is no such place."
Nansen, who probably went farther
north than any other explorer, remarks in his book that it was a
strange feeling to be sailing in the dark night to unknown lands, over
an open rolling sea, where no ship had ever been before, and remarks
how mild the climate was for September. The farther north he went, the
less and less ice he saw. He remarked,
"There is always the same dark
sky ahead, which means open sea. They little think at home in Norway
that we are sailing straight to the Pole in clear water. I shouldn't
have believed it myself if anyone should have predicted it two weeks
ago, but it is true. Is this not a dream?"
Three weeks later he mentions that
the water was still open and not frozen. He remarks:
"As far as the eye can see from
the crow's nest with the small field glass, there is no end to the open
water." Between September 6th and 2lst, he found no ice as he traveled
northward in a very high latitude.
"After all the foregoing
evidence, is it possible that anyone can believe that the respective
oceans (in the far north) are frozen bodies of water? If they do not
believe that these oceans are frozen, why do the explorers fail to
reach the Poles - if there be such places?"
WHY IT IS
WARMER NEAR THE POLES.
"One of the principal proofs
that the earth is hollow is that it is warmer near the Poles. If it can
be shown by quoting those who made the farthest advance toward the
supposed Poles, that it is warmer, that vegetation shows more life,
that game is more plentiful than farther south, then we have a
reasonable right to claim that the heat comes from the interior of the
earth, as that seems to be the only place from which it could come.
"In `Captain Hall's Last Trip,'
we read: `We find this a much warmer country than we expected, bare of
snow and ice. We have found that the country abounds with life, and
with seals, game, geese, ducks, musk-cattle, rabbits, wolves, foxes,
bears, partridges, lemmings, etc. (He is speaking of the far north.)
"Nansen draws special attention
to the warmth and says, `We must almost imagine ourselves at home.'
This was at one of the farthest points north reached by anyone, and yet
the weather was mild and pleasant.
"It will be observed that these
extremely strong winds from the interior of the earth not only raise
the temperature considerably in the vicinity of the Arctic Ocean, but
affect it very materially four hundred and fifty miles away. Nothing
could raise the temperature in such a manner, except a storm coming
from the interior of the earth.
"Greely states: `Surely this
presence of birds and flowers and beasts was a greeting on nature's
part to our new home.' Does that sound as if he had expected to find
these things there, or that their presence was an everyday occurrence?
No. It was written in a tone of surprise. From what place had these
birds and game come? South of them for miles, the earth was covered
with perpetual snow - in many locations thousands of feet deep. They
are found in that location in summer; and as it is warmer farther
north, they would not be likely to go to a colder climate in winter.
They seem to pass into the interior of the earth.
"The mutton-birds of Australia
leave that continent in September, and no one has ever been able to
find out where they go. My theory is that they pass into the interior
of the earth via the South Pole. "
Reed points out that many animals
inhabiting the far north, as the musk-ox, go north in winter in order
to reach a warmer climate. He remarks:
"Since it becomes warmer as they
go north, instinct tells them not to go south in winter. And if they do
not go south, they must go into the interior of the earth."
Another animal that goes north in
winter is the auk. Schwatka saw a flock of four million auks, which
darken the sky, going north as winter approached. Nansen says of the
extreme north that a land which teems with bears, auks and black
guillemots "must be a Canaan, flowing with milk and honey."
PRODUCES COLORED SNOW IN THE ARCTIC ?
"Why is the snow colored in the
Arctic regions? The snow has been analyzed and the red, green and
yellow have been found to contain vegetable matter, presumably a
flower, or the pollen of a plant. From where did it come? A flower that
produced pollen sufficient to permeate the air with such density that
it colored the snow, which require a vast territory - millions of acres
- to grow it. Where is that to be found? It must be near the North
Pole, for, if it grew elsewhere, colored snow would be found at other
locations, and not be confined to the Arctic regions. As no such
flowering plant is known on the earth's surface, we must look
"The interior of the earth is
the only spot that will furnish us with an answer to the question. As
the colors fall at different seasons, we may presume that the flowers
mature at these seasons. It is also easy to find out where the black
snow, frequently mentioned by the explorers, comes from. It comes out
of an exploding volcano - of the kind that covered Nansen's ship with
dust. All unexplained questions could be easily answered if one would
believe that the earth is hollow. It is impossible to answer them under
any other theory.
"Kane, in his first volume, page
44, says: `We passed the Crimson Cliffs at Sir John Ross in the
forenoon of August 5th. The patches of red snow from which they derive
their name could be seen clearly at the distance of ten miles from the
coast. It had a fine deep rose hue.'
"Kane speaks of the red snow as
if it had a regular season in which to appear - as he says, `if the
snowy surface were more diffused, as it is no doubt earlier in the
season.' In another place he speaks of the red snow being two weeks
later than usual. Now taking the fact into account that the material
that colors the snow is a vegetable matter, supposed to be the blossom
or pollen of a plant, and that no such plant grows on earth, where does
it come from? It must grow in the interior of the earth. "
HOW ARE ICEBERGS FORMED:
Since icebergs are formed from fresh water, not salty ocean water, they
could not be formed from the Arctic Ocean, but by some fresh body of
water. However there is no fresh body of water in the polar region.
Reed's theory is that icebergs are formed from rivers coming from the
interior of the earth and flowing toward the surface through the polar
opening. When they reach the cold exterior they freeze, while more
water passes over the frozen part and freezes too, forming mountains of
ice. With the coming of summer, these big masses of ice are thawed
loose and break off, falling into the sea and producing the mysterious
tidal waves observed in the far north. Reed says:
"It is simply out of the
question for an iceberg to form in any location yet discovered. On the
other hand, the interior of the earth - back from the mouth of rivers
or canyons - being warmer, is just suited for the formation of
icebergs. The mouth freezes first, and the river, continuing to flow to
the ocean, overflows the mouth, and freezes for months, until spring.
As the warm weather of summer advances, and, owing to the warmth of the
earth, the bergs are thawed loose, and water from the rains in the
interior rushes up, and they are shoved into the ocean, and tidal waves
"Note the difference. On the
outside of the earth, the whole length of a stream is frozen, and the
farther inland the harder the freezing, while in the interior of the
earth (at the polar opening) only the mouth is frozen. In the interior
of the earth, there is not only plenty of water to produce icebergs,
but plenty to shove them into the ocean.
"For the last three hundred
years a fairly steady stream of explorers have been trying to reach the
Pole - Arctic and Antarctic - and no one has ever seen an iceberg
leaving its original location and plunging into the ocean. Isn't it
strange that no one thought of asking about their place of origin?"
In support of the theory that
icebergs, made from fresh water, cannot be formed on the outside of the
earth and must come from fresh water rivers in its interior, Reed
quotes Bernacchi who, writing on his observations in the Antarctic,
"There was less than two inches
of rainfall in eleven and one-half months, and while it snowed quite
frequently, it never fell to any great depth. Under such conditions,
where would materials be found to produce an iceberg? Yet the greatest
one on earth is there - one so large that it is called the Great Ice
Barrier, rather than an iceberg - being over four hundred miles long
and fifty miles wide. It is grounded in two thousand one hundred feet
of water, and extends from eighty to two hundred feet above water."
"Now it would be impossible for
this iceberg to form in a country having practically no rain or snow.
As icebergs are made from frozen water, and there is no water to
freeze, it evidently was formed at some place other than where it now
is. The iceberg itself, being of fresh water, lies in an ocean of salt
water. "How do I know that the great ice barrier came from the interior
of the earth? Or from the kind of river described? First, it could not
come from the exterior of the earth, since icebergs are not formed
there. That river must have been 2,500 feet deep, fifty miles across
and from four to five hundred miles long, for these are the present
dimensions of the iceberg. The river had to be straight or the iceberg
could not pass out without breaking. It passed through a comparatively
level country because the surface is still flat.
"Another proof that the interior
of the earth is level near the Antarctic entrance is that many of the
icebergs found in the Antarctic are long and slim. They are called `ice
tongues,' which indicates that they came out of rivers running nearly
on a level. The icebergs found in the Arctic, on the other hand, are
more chunky, indicating that they come from a more mountainous country,
where the fall of streams is more abrupt, causing the icebergs to be
shorter and thicker.
"When Bernacchi was voyaging in
the Autarctic, he wrote: `During the next two days we passed some
thousands of icebergs, as many as ninety being counted from the bridge
at one time. There was very little variety of form among them, all
being very large and bounded by perpendicular cliffs. There was a large
quantity of fresh water at the surface, derived from the number of
"How does this account accord
with your notions of how icebergs are formed in a country where
Bernacchi reports less than two inches of rainfall in the whole year,
and but small quantities of snow? Where is the water to come from that
will produce such great quantities of icebergs averaging a thousand
feet in thickness, and many of them several miles long? Those icebergs
were on their way north - never to return - yet the ocean will always
be filled with them, as others will come from the place where they
"Where is that place? There is
no rain or melted snow to furnish the water to freeze into an iceberg.
Icebergs can come from only one place - the INTERIOR of the earth.
TIDAL WAVES. Reed here repeats the description of Arctic
tidal waves by various explorers. They lift the ice of the great ice
fields to great heights and can be heard for miles in the distance
before they reach the ship and for miles after they pass beyond the
ship. Arctic explorers describe these tidal waves as follows:
"Giant blocks pitched and rolled
as though controlled by invisible hands, and the vast compressing
bodies shrieked a shrill and horrible sound that curdled the blood. On
came the frozen waves. Seams ran and rattled across them with a
thundering boom, while we watched their terrible progress. " Reed says:
"These tidal waves are caused by some tremendous agency and I can think
of nothing more powerful than the plunging of an iceberg into the
ocean. The great frequency of these powerful tidal waves seems to
exclude the possibility of their being caused by underwater volcanic